**DOES
GOD THINK** **1**
IS PRIME?

**Professor
Ian Mallett**

####

####

#### Does God think that the number 1 is a prime number?
A good question, which can be answered with just four basic responses.

#### 1. Yes!

#### 2. No! 1 is a separate and special entity called ‘Unity’.
It is neither a prime nor a composite number. The first prime number is 2.

#### 3a. It doesn’t matter, it’s just a question of definition.

#### 3b. It doesn’t matter, I don’t believe in God.

#### 4. What is a prime number?

#### In whatever category your reply falls, I’m sure
you will benefit from reading this article so welcome to the site!

####

#### WHAT IS A PRIME NUMBER?

#### A person in group 4 asks ‘What is a prime number?’ whilst
a person in 3a effectively implies there is more than one definition, those
in the first group upholding a different definition of a prime number to those
in the second group. It’s already getting a bit confusing, isn’t it? But why
does this fundamental question, ‘Does God think 1 is prime?’ matter? Does it
really matter if the first prime number is 1 or 2? Whether you believe in God
or not, the answer has to be a resounding ‘yes’. Why? Well, it’s because of
order. There is order to and in everything. Ask an American what the 5^{th}
Amendment is and he/she will tell you. Ask a scientist what is the 10^{th}
element and his reply will be Neon. Wouldn’t it be confusing if another told
you it is Sodium or yet another Fluorine? Enquire of a mathematician as to what
is the 73^{rd} triangular number and the answer he will give is 2,701.
The more thought you give, the more you will realise how important order is.
You were born on the nth day of the nth month of the nth year. Without all the
nth numbers that surround our daily lives there would be utter confusion. Just
as with everything else, what the nth prime number is, is important. Suppose
you wanted to know what is the 13^{th} prime number. You could be told
either 37 or 41, dependent upon the opinion of the person giving the answer.
Conversely, if you wished to know the order number of prime 37, the reply would
be either the 12th or the 13th. Why does this extraordinary anomaly, this confusing
situation, exist with this most majestic series of integers, the prime numbers?
The answer is simple, as those in category 3a would reply; it’s a question of
definition.

#### Before I offer some alternative definitions of prime
numbers, I want to talk about the composite numbers. Composite numbers are those
numbers in the integer series which are not primes, including unity. The definition
of a composite number is any number that can be expressed as the product of
positive integers smaller than itself. For example, the first composite number
is 4 which is equal to 2 x 2. The first few composite numbers are: 4 (2 x 2),
6 (2 x 3), 8 (2 x 2 x 2), 9 (3 x 3), 10 (2 x 5), 12 (2 x 2 x 3) …. Some composites
can be expressed as the product of smaller numbers in a variety of ways. We
can express the number 12 by the forms 2 x 2 x 3, or 3 x 4, or 2 x 6 for example.
The definition of a composite number carries with it a beautiful elegance because
it doesn’t mention any specific number, this elegance lacking in some of the
definitions given for prime numbers. Thankfully, there is no confusion here.
Everyone is in agreement regarding the first composite number and therefore
the nth composite being equal to x is universal. If you asked any mathematician
what the 13^{th} composite number is, his reply unquestionably would
be 22.

#### Prime numbers are far more important than composite
numbers in the worlds of mathematics, the sciences, cryptography etc. Mathematicians,
mistakenly in my view, often refer to prime numbers as being the building bricks
of all numbers. The act of building is an additive process rather than a multiplicative
one. You can’t build a wall and then multiply that wall by four to make a house.
You just have to keep building, adding one brick at a time, until the house
is completed. The building brick of all numbers therefore is the number 1. The
number 1 is the brick that builds the number n, where each value of n is equal
to the number ‘bricks’ required. The number 10 requires 10 bricks or 10 1’s,
20 requires 20 1’s etc. Nonetheless, great importance is assigned to the prime
number series. So why the confusion over their order numbers? Why isn’t there
universal agreement as to which is the first prime? Surely this issue is at
least equal to, and probably far more important than, the order number of the
composite numbers.

#### Up until the beginning of the last century the general
consensus was that 1 is prime, with just a few detractors. The French mathematician
Henri Lebesgue was emphatic on this issue. The majority of mathematical textbooks
in the 19^{th} and early 20^{th} centuries gave 1 as prime.
Even now, maths textbooks as late as 1995 or later show 1 as being the first
prime. However, at the beginning of the last century mathematicians began to
see the number 1 as a special case, isolating it from the primes and composites
by calling it ‘unity’. It supposedly made things more ‘convenient’, an expression
which I loathe because convenience doesn’t necessarily make a right and even
now I still await an example of this so called ‘convenience’. The main opposition
to the 1 is prime lobby is that it supposedly destroys that monolith of mathematics,
the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic which states that every natural number
is either prime or can be uniquely factored as a product of primes in a unique
way - hmm, unique! Well, in the first instance isn’t the number itself unique?
Can something be doubly unique? Of course not! Since the number itself is unique
it would be logical that its prime factorisation is different to that of any
other number. I don’t think it matters a lot whether or not this theorem is
destroyed but there is no need for it to be destroyed if 1 is considered prime.
It all boils down to definition again. By the insertion of just two words the
theorem still stands: the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that every
natural number is either prime or can be factored as a product of prime proper
factors in a unique way.

#### I list below a selection of definitions given for prime
numbers from the Internet:

#### A whole number greater than 1 that has exactly two whole
number factors, 1 and itself. The first five prime numbers are 2,3,5,7, and
11. www.sidwell.edu/academics/lower_school/LS_Math_Adventures/glossary.htm

#### Any integer that cannot be divided by another number
evenly except by itself and 1; two is the smallest prime number Example:"2,
3, 5, 7, 11, 13" www.beekmanlibrary.org/Mgloss.html

#### Is 1 a prime number? Most textbooks today call it neither
prime nor composite, but older texts generally considered it to be prime. In
1859, Lebesgue stated explicitly that 1 is prime in Exercices d'analyse numérique.
It is prime in Primary Elements of Algebra for Common Schools and Academies
(1866) by Joseph Ray and Standard Arithmetic (1892) by William J. Milne. A list
of primes to 10,006,721 published in 1914 by DN Lehmer includes 1. ... members.aol.com/jeff570/ambiguities.html

#### An integer greater than 1 with no positive integer divisors
other than 1 and itself; eg, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, and 19 are prime numbers.
www.csa.com/hottopics/crypt/gloss.php

#### A number where the only factors are one and itself.
library.thinkquest.org/5196/Workpages/definitions.htm

#### A counting number is prime if it is divisible only by
1 and itself. By convention, the number 1 is excluded from this definition.
1 is neither prime nor composite. www.arps.org/users/hs/kochn/QR/Glossary.htm

#### A whole number with exactly two unique factors, one
and itself. math.youngzones.org/Math_2213_webpages/vocabulary2213.html

#### In mathematics, a prime number (or prime) is a natural
number greater than one whose only positive divisors are one and itself. A natural
number that is greater than one and is not a prime is called a composite number.
The numbers zero and one are neither prime nor composite. The property of being
a prime is called primality. Prime numbers are of fundamental importance in
number theory. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_number

#### Currently most but not all lists of primes exclude 1.
But let's take a look at one definition given above: 'Any
integer that cannot be divided by another number evenly except by itself and
1; two is the smallest prime number Example:"2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13"'.
This definition appears to be somewhat ambiguous since 1 divided by itself is
1 and 1 divided by 1 is 1 but 1 is excluded from the list. It certainly doesn't
make sense to me! Now another definition: 'An integer
greater than 1 with no positive integer divisors other than 1 and itself; eg,
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, and 19 are prime numbers.' This
to me is where elegance comes in. Since it is possible to define a composite
number without the use of any specific numbers, surely it is possible to define
a prime in the same manner. I doubt this can be achieved when unity is discounted
but it is no problem at all if 1 is included. One could simply say that a prime
number is any whole integer that is not composite. However, I am not personally
keen on a negative definition. My proposal is: 'A prime number is a whole integer
which has no proper factors'.

#### THE DISCOURSE

#### In 1917 the mathematician Dudeney discovered the smallest
Prime Magic Square. For information on magic squares
see: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/MagicSquare.html

####

#### The are two things which are particularly significant
about this first and smallest prime magic square. Firstly, we note that the
number 1 is included
in the set. Secondly, the all-important figure at the centre of the square is
37. This prime number
is without doubt the number of God and the most sublime of all numbers. The
oldest name for God, an Aramaic word found only once in the Bible in the book
of Daniel, has a gematria value of 37.
Because 1 is included
it means that the order numbers of these nine primes are different to what they
would be if 2 were to be considered the first prime. In this case, the order
numbers of the primes from left to right and row by row are 20, 1, 15, 7, 13,
19, 12, 22 and 5. The sum of these is 114 which is the exact difference between
the 37^{th}
prime 151 and its order number 37.
It seems therefore that this magic square by circumstance self-confirms the
order of the primes. Be that as it may, we will investigate further to demonstrate
that it is the number 37
that determines the order number of the primes.

#### The number 37
exhibits some amazing properties. Firstly, let us consider its figurate properties.
37 uniform counters
may be arranged on a flat surface to form any one of three symmetrical figures,
hexagon, hexagram and octagon:

#### The number 37 is
uniquely the only 2-D tri-figurate number in the universe. In addition to this,
other figurate properties are evident. The first digit 3 is a triangular number
whilst the second 7 is a hexagon. The sum of these two digits is 10, again a
triangular number. The product of 3 and 7 is 21, once more a triangular figure.
The mirror image of 37,
i.e. 73, is the next figurate star or hexagram in the series after 37
and 37 is the core
hexagon of star 73. This is a unique situation in the hexagram series.

#### Any number that is a multiple of 37
remains a multiple of 37
when clustered. This is a simple test to discover if large numbers are divisible
by 37. I coined the
word 'cluster' for the process of replacing the commas in any number above 999
(27 x 37) with a plus
sign and repeating the process if necessary until the number is below 1000.
Any intermediary clusters of numbers that are multiples of 37
are naturally also multiples of 37.
As an example, let us take a random number, say 1653845 and multiply it by 37. The result is 61,192,265 and
61 + 192 + 265 is equal to 518 or 14 x 37.

#### Another amazing property of 37
is that any multiple can be split into two sections, each cubed and added to
the other so that it remains a multiple of 37.
For example, the number 37
itself. 3 cubed plus 7 cubed is equal to 27 plus 343, the total of these two
figures being 370.

#### The combined processes of splitting, cubing and adding,
and of clustering, produce an interesting result when applied to the Greek gematria
of Jesus Christ, 2368 (64 x 37).
In order to show that there is no trickery here the number will be split into
all three possible configurations:

#### 2^3 + 368^3 = 8 + 49,836,032 = 49,836,040. 49 + 836
+ 040 = 925 (25 x 37)

#### 23^3 + 68^3 = 12,167 + 314,432 = 326,599. 326 + 599
= 925 (25 x 37)

#### 236^3 + 8^3 = 13,144,256 + 512 = 13,144,768. 13 + 144
+ 768 = 925 (25 x 37)

#### It is highly unusual for all three results to be the
same with a four-digit multiple of 37.
Bearing this in mind, is it pure coincidence that the result in each case for
2368 Jesus Christ in the Greek is 925, the English and French gematrias of Jesus
Christ?

**On the subject of English gematria, the alternate
addition/subtraction of the letter values of ****'thirty-seven':**
**T**(**200) -**
**H(8) +** **I(9)**
- **R(90) +**
**T(200) - Y(700)
+** **S(100) -**
**E(5) +** **V(400)
-** **E(5) +** **N(50)
is 151, the** **37**^{th}
prime.

** The principle of addition/subtraction or plus/minus
is established in the mathematics of the first verse in the Bible, Genesis 1:1,
in which the number 37
plays the major key role. However, we can see the importance of 37
in natural mathematics using the plus/minus process with the primes and prime
factors of the composites in the integer series (primes coloured red, proper
prime factors of composites coloured blue):**

#### 1 - 2
+ 3 - 2
+ 2 - 5
+ 2 - 3
+ 7 - 2
+ 2 - 2
+ 3 - 3
+ 2 - 5
+ 11 - 2
+ 2 - 3
+ 13 - 2
+7 - 3
+ 5 - 2
+ 2 - 2
+ 2 - 17
+ 2 - 3
+ 3 - 19
+ 2 - 2
+ 5 - 3
+7 - 2
+ 11 - 23
+ 2 - 2
+ 2 - 3
+ 5 - 5
+ 2 - 13
+ 3 - 3
+ 3 - 2
+ 2 - 7
+ 29 - 2 + 3
- 5 + 31
- 2 + 2
- 2 + 2
- 2 + 3
- 11 + 2
- 17 + 5
- 7 + 2
- 2 + 3
- 3 + 37
= 37.

#### The *only* numbers in the whole integer series
where the prime or composite number is congruent to the plus/minus result are
1 and 37.
This fact surely lends even more weight to the argument that 1
is prime, given that 37
is at the centre of the first and smallest prime magic square which contains
the number 1.

#### If any two numbers are cubed and added together, the
result will always be divisible by the total of the original two numbers. This
fact is of great significance concerning the number 37
for when its order number 13 is cubed and added to 37
cubed and then divided by 50 (13 + 37),
the result is equal to 7 x 151. Now 7 is the order number of prime 13 and the
37^{th}
prime is 151. I suspect that this is a unique situation concerning 37
and of course it only works if 1
is counted as prime.

#### Is it any wonder, given these amazing properties of
37, that God has chosen
this number to reveal His secrets. This figure is the highest prime factor of
the Greek gematria for Jesus 888 (24 x 37),
Christ 1480 (40 x 37),
Jesus Christ 2368 (64 x 37),
Godhead 592 (16 x 37)
and Son of Man 2960 (80 x 37).
In addition, it is the highest prime factor of the phrase 'Messias cometh, which
is called Christ' 3700
spoken by the Samaritan woman at the well. The sum of the names on the Breastplate
of the High Priest is the same figure 3700.
Please see article by Rev Dr Natch 'The Breastplate
of the High Priest'. http://www.fivedoves.com/revdrnatch/breastplate.htm

#### Genesis 1:1 'In the beginning God created the heaven
and the earth' in the Hebrew has a gematria of 2701 or 37
times its mirror image 73.
There are many wonderful mathematical properties regarding this verse and especially
concerning the number 37.
I refer the reader to this site by Vernon Jenkins
for further information on Genesis 1:1. http://homepage.virgin.net/vernon.jenkins/index.htm

#### The gematria values of the 7 Hebrew words of Genesis
1:1 are 913, 203, 86, 401, 395, 407 and 296. The plus/minus, i.e. 913
- 203 + 86
- 401 + 395
- 407 + 296
is 679, a stella-octangula or 3-D star number. The expression a mod b returns
the remainder when a is divided by b. The two prime factors of Genesis 1:1 are
37 and 73
and 679 mod 37
returns 13, the order number of prime 37
whilst 679 mod 73
returns 22, the order number of prime 73!
Is this merely fortuitous? 37
and 73 are the second
and third star numbers and the digit sum at the second digit of 679 is 13, the
order number of 37,
and at the third digit the sum is 22, the order number of 73.

#### When broken down into primes or prime factors of composites,
the Genesis 1:1 factors are: 11, 83, 7, 29, 2, 43, 401,
5, 79, 11, 37, 2, 2, 2 and 37. Note that the only prime in the seven word values
is 401. By rotation
or cyclically, the 401^{st}
factor is 37 and the
37^{th}
is 401 and these are
the only two primes in the set of fifteen that complement each other in such
a manner. The plus/minus of the fifteen factors is astoundingly 401!
Even more mind blowing is that the plus/minus of the order numbers of these
primes, 6 - 24 + 5 - 11 + 2 - 15 + 80 - 4 + 23 - 6 + 13 - 2 + 2 - 2 + 13, is
80, the order number
of 401!! Of course,
with 2 being the first prime the result would be 79, still the order number
of 401 (order numbers discovered by Iain Strachan).
Either way, bearing in mind that the prime sequence is non-linear whilst the
order numbers are linear, this masterstroke of genius is mind boggling. Now
let's look at the 'halo' surrounding 401, i.e. the figures 86 and 395. The sum
of these is 481 (80 + 401 or 13 x 37),
equal to 401 plus its order number 80 or the product of 37 and its order number 13, again 37
and 401 complementing
each other. This is truly amazing! The digit sum of the word values to 401
inclusive is 37 whilst
the plus/minus of the same digits is 13 the order number of 37!

#### When the number 1
is excluded from the list of primes the order numbers of the two prime factors
of Genesis 1:1, 37 and
73, are 12 and 21.
In both cases we see a digital reflection and superficially it looks good. But
this is a naïve notion displaying a lack of knowledge, understanding and
study of Genesis 1:1. The Greek gematria of the word Logos, itself meaning 'Word'
and found in the first verse of the gospel of John, the only other verse apart
from Genesis 1:1 out of 31,102 verses to begin 'In the beginning', is 373.
This figure is an overlay of the two Genesis 1:1 factors 37
and 73.
The order number of 373
when 2 is the first prime is 74 which again appears to be a good result because
74 is equal to 2 x 37
and is a neighbour of 73.
But the true order number of 373 is
75 and we note that its prime factor sum 3 + 5 + 5 is 13, the order number of
37! The other factor
is the mirror image of 37
and the mirror image of 75 is 57, its prime factor sum being 3 + 19 equal to
22, the order number of 73!

#### Genesis 1:1 has a number of internal design features
more than one of which is to confirm the order of the primes. In a factor analysis
of the 127 possible combinations of the 7 word values, there are 23 that are
multiples of 37, way
above the expected rate of just over 3. If there is an Intelligent Designer
behind Genesis 1:1 it might be reasonably expected that both the 37^{th}
and 73^{rd}
primes would also appear in a factor analysis. When 2 is counted as the first
prime, the 37^{th}
prime is 157 and the 73^{rd}
is 367. In a factor analysis the 37^{th}
prime does NOT occur at all and the 73^{rd}
prime occurs once. When 1
is counted as prime the 37^{th}
prime is 151 and the 73^{rd}
359. In a factor analysis the 37^{th}
prime occurs twice and the 73^{rd}
once, in all three times as many occurrences as when 2 is the first prime! Not
only, but the verse is split exactly with one of the two 37^{th}
prime multiples and the 73^{rd}
prime multiple: 913
203 86 401 395
407 296.
The blue numbers total 1,795 which is equal to 5 x 359 the 73^{rd}
prime. The red numbers sum to 906 which is equal to 6 x 151 the 37^{th}
prime. By rotation or cyclically, the 37^{t}^{h}
word value is 203. Both combinations which are multiples of the 37^{th} prime begin with this figure: 203 + 401 = 604 and 203 + 407 +
296. The number 203 is both the mirror image and a numerical anagram of 302
which is equal to the 37^{th}
prime times 2, the number of occurrences in the factor analysis! 73
is the mirror image of 37
and in an anticlockwise direction from the last value, the 73^{rd}
word value is 395. In reverse this is the first value of the combination which
is a multiple of the 73^{rd}
prime. This fifth word value 395 is an anagram of 359 the 73^{rd} prime! This figure is equal to 359 x 1, the number of occurrences
in the factor analysis. WOW! The digit string of the seven Hebrew word values
of Genesis 1:1, 91320386401395407296,
on the first cluster is 91 + 320 + 386 + 401 + 395 + 407 + 296 which totals
2296. The prime factor sum of this figure is 2 + 2 + 2 + 7 + 41 which equals
54, the 37^{th}
composite number! The second cluster, 2 + 296, is 298. The prime factor sum
of this figure is 2 + 149 is 151, the 37^{th}
prime number! What more could God do to convince us that 1
is prime?

#### On a final note, how the idea that 1 is not prime destroys
that beautiful Trinity of the first three primes 1,
2 and 3.
The only triad of primes which are linked together, nothing in between, and
the only primes whose order numbers are equal to their values. Uniquely, the
product of these three is equal to their sum, i.e. 6, the 3^{rd}
triangle. This is the gematria
of the Greek word ABBA meaning Father or Daddy. The first three primes 1,
2 and 3 represent the Trinity in terms
of the order of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

#### Be not deceived dear reader, 1 is prime and God thinks
so too!

** **

** **

** **

*CONTACT ME*:
**profianmallett@ntlworld.com**

**Copyright 2005 Professor Ian Mallett and Far-In X-Ray.
All rights reserved. Last update 28/11/05. This document may be freely reproduced
with appropriate credits, either in part or as a whole, for non-commercial use
only.**

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