Professor Ian Mallett



Does God think that the number 1 is a prime number? A good question, which can be answered with just four basic responses.

1. Yes!

2. No! 1 is a separate and special entity called ‘Unity’. It is neither a prime nor a composite number. The first prime number is 2.

3a. It doesn’t matter, it’s just a question of definition.

3b. It doesn’t matter, I don’t believe in God.

4. What is a prime number?

 In whatever category your reply falls, I’m sure you will benefit from reading this article so welcome to the site!



A person in group 4 asks ‘What is a prime number?’ whilst a person in 3a effectively implies there is more than one definition, those in the first group upholding a different definition of a prime number to those in the second group. It’s already getting a bit confusing, isn’t it? But why does this fundamental question, ‘Does God think 1 is prime?’ matter? Does it really matter if the first prime number is 1 or 2? Whether you believe in God or not, the answer has to be a resounding ‘yes’. Why? Well, it’s because of order. There is order to and in everything. Ask an American what the 5th Amendment is and he/she will tell you. Ask a scientist what is the 10th element and his reply will be Neon. Wouldn’t it be confusing if another told you it is Sodium or yet another Fluorine? Enquire of a mathematician as to what is the 73rd triangular number and the answer he will give is 2,701. The more thought you give, the more you will realise how important order is. You were born on the nth day of the nth month of the nth year. Without all the nth numbers that surround our daily lives there would be utter confusion. Just as with everything else, what the nth prime number is, is important. Suppose you wanted to know what is the 13th prime number. You could be told either 37 or 41, dependent upon the opinion of the person giving the answer. Conversely, if you wished to know the order number of prime 37, the reply would be either the 12th or the 13th. Why does this extraordinary anomaly, this confusing situation, exist with this most majestic series of integers, the prime numbers? The answer is simple, as those in category 3a would reply; it’s a question of definition.

Before I offer some alternative definitions of prime numbers, I want to talk about the composite numbers. Composite numbers are those numbers in the integer series which are not primes, including unity. The definition of a composite number is any number that can be expressed as the product of positive integers smaller than itself. For example, the first composite number is 4 which is equal to 2 x 2. The first few composite numbers are: 4 (2 x 2), 6 (2 x 3), 8 (2 x 2 x 2), 9 (3 x 3), 10 (2 x 5), 12 (2 x 2 x 3) …. Some composites can be expressed as the product of smaller numbers in a variety of ways. We can express the number 12 by the forms 2 x 2 x 3, or 3 x 4, or 2 x 6 for example. The definition of a composite number carries with it a beautiful elegance because it doesn’t mention any specific number, this elegance lacking in some of the definitions given for prime numbers. Thankfully, there is no confusion here. Everyone is in agreement regarding the first composite number and therefore the nth composite being equal to x is universal. If you asked any mathematician what the 13th composite number is, his reply unquestionably would be 22.

Prime numbers are far more important than composite numbers in the worlds of mathematics, the sciences, cryptography etc. Mathematicians, mistakenly in my view, often refer to prime numbers as being the building bricks of all numbers. The act of building is an additive process rather than a multiplicative one. You can’t build a wall and then multiply that wall by four to make a house. You just have to keep building, adding one brick at a time, until the house is completed. The building brick of all numbers therefore is the number 1. The number 1 is the brick that builds the number n, where each value of n is equal to the number ‘bricks’ required. The number 10 requires 10 bricks or 10 1’s, 20 requires 20 1’s etc. Nonetheless, great importance is assigned to the prime number series. So why the confusion over their order numbers? Why isn’t there universal agreement as to which is the first prime? Surely this issue is at least equal to, and probably far more important than, the order number of the composite numbers.

Up until the beginning of the last century the general consensus was that 1 is prime, with just a few detractors. The French mathematician Henri Lebesgue was emphatic on this issue. The majority of mathematical textbooks in the 19th and early 20th centuries gave 1 as prime. Even now, maths textbooks as late as 1995 or later show 1 as being the first prime. However, at the beginning of the last century mathematicians began to see the number 1 as a special case, isolating it from the primes and composites by calling it ‘unity’. It supposedly made things more ‘convenient’, an expression which I loathe because convenience doesn’t necessarily make a right and even now I still await an example of this so called ‘convenience’. The main opposition to the 1 is prime lobby is that it supposedly destroys that monolith of mathematics, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic which states that every natural number is either prime or can be uniquely factored as a product of primes in a unique way - hmm, unique! Well, in the first instance isn’t the number itself unique? Can something be doubly unique? Of course not! Since the number itself is unique it would be logical that its prime factorisation is different to that of any other number. I don’t think it matters a lot whether or not this theorem is destroyed but there is no need for it to be destroyed if 1 is considered prime. It all boils down to definition again. By the insertion of just two words the theorem still stands: the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that every natural number is either prime or can be factored as a product of prime proper factors in a unique way.

I list below a selection of definitions given for prime numbers from the Internet:

A whole number greater than 1 that has exactly two whole number factors, 1 and itself. The first five prime numbers are 2,3,5,7, and 11.

Any integer that cannot be divided by another number evenly except by itself and 1; two is the smallest prime number Example:"2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13"

Is 1 a prime number? Most textbooks today call it neither prime nor composite, but older texts generally considered it to be prime. In 1859, Lebesgue stated explicitly that 1 is prime in Exercices d'analyse numérique. It is prime in Primary Elements of Algebra for Common Schools and Academies (1866) by Joseph Ray and Standard Arithmetic (1892) by William J. Milne. A list of primes to 10,006,721 published in 1914 by DN Lehmer includes 1. ...

An integer greater than 1 with no positive integer divisors other than 1 and itself; eg, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, and 19 are prime numbers.

A number where the only factors are one and itself.

A counting number is prime if it is divisible only by 1 and itself. By convention, the number 1 is excluded from this definition. 1 is neither prime nor composite.

A whole number with exactly two unique factors, one and itself.

In mathematics, a prime number (or prime) is a natural number greater than one whose only positive divisors are one and itself. A natural number that is greater than one and is not a prime is called a composite number. The numbers zero and one are neither prime nor composite. The property of being a prime is called primality. Prime numbers are of fundamental importance in number theory.

Currently most but not all lists of primes exclude 1. But let's take a look at one definition given above: 'Any integer that cannot be divided by another number evenly except by itself and 1; two is the smallest prime number Example:"2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13"'. This definition appears to be somewhat ambiguous since 1 divided by itself is 1 and 1 divided by 1 is 1 but 1 is excluded from the list. It certainly doesn't make sense to me! Now another definition: 'An integer greater than 1 with no positive integer divisors other than 1 and itself; eg, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, and 19 are prime numbers.' This to me is where elegance comes in. Since it is possible to define a composite number without the use of any specific numbers, surely it is possible to define a prime in the same manner. I doubt this can be achieved when unity is discounted but it is no problem at all if 1 is included. One could simply say that a prime number is any whole integer that is not composite. However, I am not personally keen on a negative definition. My proposal is: 'A prime number is a whole integer which has no proper factors'.



In 1917 the mathematician Dudeney discovered the smallest Prime Magic Square. For information on magic squares see:


Refer also to: by John Tng and see how Jesus Christ is encoded!

The are two things which are particularly significant about this first and smallest prime magic square. Firstly, we note that the number 1 is included in the set. Secondly, the all-important figure at the centre of the square is 37. This prime number is without doubt the number of God and the most sublime of all numbers. The oldest name for God, an Aramaic word found only once in the Bible in the book of Daniel, has a gematria value of 37. Because 1 is included it means that the order numbers of these nine primes are different to what they would be if 2 were to be considered the first prime. In this case, the order numbers of the primes from left to right and row by row are 20, 1, 15, 7, 13, 19, 12, 22 and 5. The sum of these is 114 which is the exact difference between the 37th prime 151 and its order number 37. It seems therefore that this magic square by circumstance self-confirms the order of the primes. Be that as it may, we will investigate further to demonstrate that it is the number 37 that determines the order number of the primes.

The number 37 exhibits some amazing properties. Firstly, let us consider its figurate properties. 37 uniform counters may be arranged on a flat surface to form any one of three symmetrical figures, hexagon, hexagram and octagon:

The number 37 is uniquely the only 2-D tri-figurate number in the universe. In addition to this, other figurate properties are evident. The first digit 3 is a triangular number whilst the second 7 is a hexagon. The sum of these two digits is 10, again a triangular number. The product of 3 and 7 is 21, once more a triangular figure. The mirror image of 37, i.e. 73, is the next figurate star or hexagram in the series after 37 and 37 is the core hexagon of star 73. This is a unique situation in the hexagram series.

Any number that is a multiple of 37 remains a multiple of 37 when clustered. This is a simple test to discover if large numbers are divisible by 37. I coined the word 'cluster' for the process of replacing the commas in any number above 999 (27 x 37) with a plus sign and repeating the process if necessary until the number is below 1000. Any intermediary clusters of numbers that are multiples of 37 are naturally also multiples of 37. As an example, let us take a random number, say 1653845 and multiply it by 37. The result is 61,192,265 and 61 + 192 + 265 is equal to 518 or 14 x 37.

Another amazing property of 37 is that any multiple can be split into two sections, each cubed and added to the other so that it remains a multiple of 37. For example, the number 37 itself. 3 cubed plus 7 cubed is equal to 27 plus 343, the total of these two figures being 370.

The combined processes of splitting, cubing and adding, and of clustering, produce an interesting result when applied to the Greek gematria of Jesus Christ, 2368 (64 x 37). In order to show that there is no trickery here the number will be split into all three possible configurations:

2^3 + 368^3 = 8 + 49,836,032 = 49,836,040. 49 + 836 + 040 = 925 (25 x 37)

23^3 + 68^3 = 12,167 + 314,432 = 326,599. 326 + 599 = 925 (25 x 37)

236^3 + 8^3 = 13,144,256 + 512 = 13,144,768. 13 + 144 + 768 = 925 (25 x 37)

It is highly unusual for all three results to be the same with a four-digit multiple of 37. Bearing this in mind, is it pure coincidence that the result in each case for 2368 Jesus Christ in the Greek is 925, the English and French gematrias of Jesus Christ?

On the subject of English gematria, the alternate addition/subtraction of the letter values of 'thirty-seven': T(200) - H(8) + I(9) - R(90) + T(200) - Y(700) + S(100) - E(5) + V(400) - E(5) + N(50) is 151, the 37th prime.

The principle of addition/subtraction or plus/minus is established in the mathematics of the first verse in the Bible, Genesis 1:1, in which the number 37 plays the major key role. However, we can see the importance of 37 in natural mathematics using the plus/minus process with the primes and prime factors of the composites in the integer series (primes coloured red, proper prime factors of composites coloured blue):

1 - 2 + 3 - 2 + 2 - 5 + 2 - 3 + 7 - 2 + 2 - 2 + 3 - 3 + 2 - 5 + 11 - 2 + 2 - 3 + 13 - 2 +7 - 3 + 5 - 2 + 2 - 2 + 2 - 17 + 2 - 3 + 3 - 19 + 2 - 2 + 5 - 3 +7 - 2 + 11 - 23 + 2 - 2 + 2 - 3 + 5 - 5 + 2 - 13 + 3 - 3 + 3 - 2 + 2 - 7 + 29 - 2 + 3 - 5 + 31 - 2 + 2 - 2 + 2 - 2 + 3 - 11 + 2 - 17 + 5 - 7 + 2 - 2 + 3 - 3 + 37 = 37.

The only numbers in the whole integer series where the prime or composite number is congruent to the plus/minus result are 1 and 37. This fact surely lends even more weight to the argument that 1 is prime, given that 37 is at the centre of the first and smallest prime magic square which contains the number 1.

If any two numbers are cubed and added together, the result will always be divisible by the total of the original two numbers. This fact is of great significance concerning the number 37 for when its order number 13 is cubed and added to 37 cubed and then divided by 50 (13 + 37), the result is equal to 7 x 151. Now 7 is the order number of prime 13 and the 37th prime is 151. I suspect that this is a unique situation concerning 37 and of course it only works if 1 is counted as prime.

Is it any wonder, given these amazing properties of 37, that God has chosen this number to reveal His secrets. This figure is the highest prime factor of the Greek gematria for Jesus 888 (24 x 37), Christ 1480 (40 x 37), Jesus Christ 2368 (64 x 37), Godhead 592 (16 x 37) and Son of Man 2960 (80 x 37). In addition, it is the highest prime factor of the phrase 'Messias cometh, which is called Christ' 3700 spoken by the Samaritan woman at the well. The sum of the names on the Breastplate of the High Priest is the same figure 3700. Please see article by Rev Dr Natch 'The Breastplate of the High Priest'.

Genesis 1:1 'In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth' in the Hebrew has a gematria of 2701 or 37 times its mirror image 73. There are many wonderful mathematical properties regarding this verse and especially concerning the number 37. I refer the reader to this site by Vernon Jenkins for further information on Genesis 1:1.

 The gematria values of the 7 Hebrew words of Genesis 1:1 are 913, 203, 86, 401, 395, 407 and 296. The plus/minus, i.e. 913 - 203 + 86 - 401 + 395 - 407 + 296 is 679, a stella-octangula or 3-D star number. The expression a mod b returns the remainder when a is divided by b. The two prime factors of Genesis 1:1 are 37 and 73 and 679 mod 37 returns 13, the order number of prime 37 whilst 679 mod 73 returns 22, the order number of prime 73! Is this merely fortuitous? 37 and 73 are the second and third star numbers and the digit sum at the second digit of 679 is 13, the order number of 37, and at the third digit the sum is 22, the order number of 73.

When broken down into primes or prime factors of composites, the Genesis 1:1 factors are: 11, 83, 7, 29, 2, 43, 401, 5, 79, 11, 37, 2, 2, 2 and 37. Note that the only prime in the seven word values is 401. By rotation or cyclically, the 401st factor is 37 and the 37th is 401 and these are the only two primes in the set of fifteen that complement each other in such a manner. The plus/minus of the fifteen factors is astoundingly 401! Even more mind blowing is that the plus/minus of the order numbers of these primes, 6 - 24 + 5 - 11 + 2 - 15 + 80 - 4 + 23 - 6 + 13 - 2 + 2 - 2 + 13, is 80, the order number of 401!! Of course, with 2 being the first prime the result would be 79, still the order number of 401 (order numbers discovered by Iain Strachan). Either way, bearing in mind that the prime sequence is non-linear whilst the order numbers are linear, this masterstroke of genius is mind boggling. Now let's look at the 'halo' surrounding 401, i.e. the figures 86 and 395. The sum of these is 481 (80 + 401 or 13 x 37), equal to 401 plus its order number 80 or the product of 37 and its order number 13, again 37 and 401 complementing each other. This is truly amazing! The digit sum of the word values to 401 inclusive is 37 whilst the plus/minus of the same digits is 13 the order number of 37!

When the number 1 is excluded from the list of primes the order numbers of the two prime factors of Genesis 1:1, 37 and 73, are 12 and 21. In both cases we see a digital reflection and superficially it looks good. But this is a naïve notion displaying a lack of knowledge, understanding and study of Genesis 1:1. The Greek gematria of the word Logos, itself meaning 'Word' and found in the first verse of the gospel of John, the only other verse apart from Genesis 1:1 out of 31,102 verses to begin 'In the beginning', is 373. This figure is an overlay of the two Genesis 1:1 factors 37 and 73. The order number of 373 when 2 is the first prime is 74 which again appears to be a good result because 74 is equal to 2 x 37 and is a neighbour of 73. But the true order number of 373 is 75 and we note that its prime factor sum 3 + 5 + 5 is 13, the order number of 37! The other factor is the mirror image of 37 and the mirror image of 75 is 57, its prime factor sum being 3 + 19 equal to 22, the order number of 73!

Genesis 1:1 has a number of internal design features more than one of which is to confirm the order of the primes. In a factor analysis of the 127 possible combinations of the 7 word values, there are 23 that are multiples of 37, way above the expected rate of just over 3. If there is an Intelligent Designer behind Genesis 1:1 it might be reasonably expected that both the 37th and 73rd primes would also appear in a factor analysis. When 2 is counted as the first prime, the 37th prime is 157 and the 73rd is 367. In a factor analysis the 37th prime does NOT occur at all and the 73rd prime occurs once. When 1 is counted as prime the 37th prime is 151 and the 73rd 359. In a factor analysis the 37th prime occurs twice and the 73rd once, in all three times as many occurrences as when 2 is the first prime! Not only, but the verse is split exactly with one of the two 37th prime multiples and the 73rd prime multiple: 913 203 86 401 395 407 296. The blue numbers total 1,795 which is equal to 5 x 359 the 73rd prime. The red numbers sum to 906 which is equal to 6 x 151 the 37th prime. By rotation or cyclically, the 37th word value is 203. Both combinations which are multiples of the 37th prime begin with this figure: 203 + 401 = 604 and 203 + 407 + 296. The number 203 is both the mirror image and a numerical anagram of 302 which is equal to the 37th prime times 2, the number of occurrences in the factor analysis! 73 is the mirror image of 37 and in an anticlockwise direction from the last value, the 73rd word value is 395. In reverse this is the first value of the combination which is a multiple of the 73rd prime. This fifth word value 395 is an anagram of 359 the 73rd prime! This figure is equal to 359 x 1, the number of occurrences in the factor analysis. WOW! The digit string of the seven Hebrew word values of Genesis 1:1, 91320386401395407296, on the first cluster is 91 + 320 + 386 + 401 + 395 + 407 + 296 which totals 2296. The prime factor sum of this figure is 2 + 2 + 2 + 7 + 41 which equals 54, the 37th composite number! The second cluster, 2 + 296, is 298. The prime factor sum of this figure is 2 + 149 is 151, the 37th prime number! What more could God do to convince us that 1 is prime?

On a final note, how the idea that 1 is not prime destroys that beautiful Trinity of the first three primes 1, 2 and 3. The only triad of primes which are linked together, nothing in between, and the only primes whose order numbers are equal to their values. Uniquely, the product of these three is equal to their sum, i.e. 6, the 3rd triangle. This is the gematria of the Greek word ABBA meaning Father or Daddy. The first three primes 1, 2 and 3 represent the Trinity in terms of the order of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

Be not deceived dear reader, 1 is prime and God thinks so too!





Copyright 2005 Professor Ian Mallett and Far-In X-Ray. All rights reserved. Last update 28/11/05. This document may be freely reproduced with appropriate credits, either in part or as a whole, for non-commercial use only.

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