Robert Rose RE: Biblical Seasons vs. Man’s Seasons
While I understand your reservations about the pagan focus on the solstice or equinox of the sun, THEY did not create the sun, moon and the stars. God did. HIS PURPOSE for the SUN, MOON and stars is clearly stated in the opening verses of the Pentateuch:
Genesis 1: 14-16 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let THEM be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: [he made] the stars also.
There are two great lights; the sun and the moon. Genesis 1:14-16 says that God made THEM for signs, and for SEASONS, and for DAYS, and YEARS. While the moon is a time piece created by God, it is not His master time piece for the seasons (although it is a general counter); the GREATER LIGHT governs the seasons. Your argument that ‘man’s seasons’ are faulty is counter to God’s purpose for the sun, moon and stars. If he made them for signs, seasons, days and years then we must also conclude that He made man with the capacity to rightly discern the sun, moon and stars for signs, seasons, days and years. Your assertion that the passage in Jubilees referring to the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th month as ‘dividing the seasons’ is true, but what restarts the count; THE SUN AT THE EQUINOX. There wouldn’t be 12 cycles of the moon if it weren’t for the sun restarting the count!
While Jewish festivals were marked by months, the main purpose of knowing when a season was going to occur (still is) was for planting crops. The two equinoxes and two solstices are the ACTUAL time markers for indicating the four seasons: sun at the spring equinox (equal day and equal night) was generally time to plant, being warm enough and sufficient sunlight for germination; sun at summer solstice ended first harvest; sun at fall equinox final harvest; sun at winter solstice was the coldest time with the shortest amount of sunlight.
IN context then, if a person planted by the cycles of the MOON only as delineating time then after only three years he would be planting one month early. It is the sun that is the reason the Hebrew lunar-solar calendar has to interject a leap month, typically every third year. 12 lunar months is 354.367 days whereas the tropical year (based on the equinox) is 365.24218 days is a 10.87 day difference. It is the sun which determines physically the seasons for the northern or southern hemispheres of earth (whichever is tilted towards or away) therefore logically it is the sun which determines the timing of the seasons. The lesser light, the moon, is the more simplified, less accurate counter for the seasons. ALL calendars seek to reconcile the cycle of THEM both; the sun and the moon. The Hebrew calendar is a 19 solar year calendar ultimately and reconciles the lunar month with the solar year every third year:
354 + 354 + 384 (leap month) = average 364 days or 52 sevens. 235 months at 29.530589 days = 6939.6884 days. 19 solar years is 6939.601 days which is a difference of only 2 hours 5 minutes, 2.51 seconds from the 235 lunar months. The Hebrew calendar is the most accurate reconciliation of the lunar month AND solar equinoctial year. It is nonsensical to say the equinoxes have nothing to do with the seasons as it is the sun’s effect on conditions that determines the seasonal changes (spring, summer, fall and winter). The equinoxes and solstices fall normally within the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th months. That is all the book of Psalms and Jubilees is saying. Otherwise, the whole of Genesis 1:14-16 would be contradicted. It also could be argued that the moon (Psalms) CAUSES the seasons as it may be the gravitational reason the earth is tilted 23 degrees: the tilt is the reason we have seasons, solstices and equinoxes.