Bruce Baber (28 March 2011)


The Ottomon Empire reigned from the city built on seven hills.  With Istanbul (formerly Constantinople - the seat of the Eastern Roman Empire) as its capital.

The Ottoman Empire was an empire that lasted from 27 July 1299 to 29 October 1923 (six years before the world stock market crash on October 29th 1929).

At the height of its power, in the 16th and 17th centuries, controlled territory in Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.  The Ottoman Empire contained 29 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire also temporarily gained authority over distant overseas lands through declarations of allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph, such as the declaration by the Sultan of Aceh in 1565; or through the temporary acquisitions of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, such as Lanzarote in 1585.

With Constantinople (now called Istanbul) as its capital city, and vast control of lands around the eastern Mediterranean during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 1520 to 1566), the empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.

The Ottoman Empire came to an end, as a regime under an imperial monarchy, on November 1, 1922. It formally ended, as a de jure state, on July 24, 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne. It was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey which was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923.


The highest position in Islam, caliphate, was claimed by the sultan which was established as Ottoman Caliphate. The Ottoman sultan, pâdişâh or "lord of kings", served as the Empire's sole regent and was considered to be the embodiment of its government, though he did not always exercise complete control.


Bruce Baber