Can We Reconcile the Discrepancy of Four Years Between the Count of 434 years in Daniel 9:25-26 and the Count of 430 years in Galations 3:17 to the Confirming of THE One Week/Seven Thousand Year Covenant between God and Man through our Lord Jesus Christ?
Let us first point out that the King James Version faithfully translates Daniel 9:27 as confirm THE covenant. The “New Age” versions of RSV and NRSV say “make a” instead of “confirm the” covenant while the NASB, NIV, and even the NKJV say “confirm a” covenant, instead of “confirm THE” covenant.
Let us second look at all five Bible verses containing both the word “confirm” and “covenant”.
And hath confirmed the same to Jacob for a law, and to Israel for an everlasting covenant, 1 Chronicles 16:17
And confirmed the same unto Jacob for a law, and to Israel for an everlasting covenant: Psalm 105:10
And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate. Daniel 9:27
Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto. Galatians 3:15
And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. Galatians 3:17
Note that the only way for the unrepentant man as represented by the unregenerated name of Jacob could gain salvation was through perfectly keeping the law, which is impossible. But, through Jesus Christ our Lord the renamed regenerated Israel found salvation through the confirming of the covenant when God became Man at the conception of Jesus Christ.
So in Galations 3:17, looking into the past, we are told the period of time till the covenant was confirmed in Christ was 430 years. While in Daniel 9:25-26, looking into the future, we are told the period of time would be 434 years as in 62 times 7 years.
Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. Daniel 9:25-26
However, we know a year for Daniel in Babylon was not solar/lunar but 360 day “prophetic” years. When one takes 434 prophetic years times 360 divided by 365.2422 the result is 427.7709 solar years. Instead of Daniel being too long by 4 years, after converting prophetic to solar years we now find it is short by 2.23 years. One simple explanation is 430 years is simply rounding off of 427.77 to two significant digits.
There is also another explanation with which a couple of adjustments can explain these 2 years. If Galatians 3 is heralding Jesus Christ at His birth, (which is the focus in the Gospels), as opposed to His conception, then Daniels 427.7709 plus up to 40 weeks is 428.5376. The difference to 430 at this point could be just the difference between starting the count at one as in first year versus zero. Then 429.5376 rounds off to three significant digits to 430.
We know Nehemiah built first the wall in troublous times which then enabled him as Governor of Jerusalem to command the rebuilding of the houses in Jerusalem in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 13:6-9). Nehemiah was Governor effectively 12 years from 445 to 433 BC, when he was recalled to Susa. Remember, Herod died in the Spring of 4 BC as documented by Josephus. That would place the birth of Jesus Christ in the fall of 5 BC and the conception around the Winter of 5 BC. Adding 427.77 years backward from the Winter of 5 BC brings us to the Spring of 433 BC.
Coincidently, the number of years that the children of Israel “sojourned” up to the day they left Egypt to the exact day, was 430 years.
Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. Exodus 12:40-41
Can we draw any comparisons? Well, the 430 years in Exodus ended with a commandment by the Pharaoh for the children of Israel to leave Egypt. While the 430 years corresponding to Daniel’s 62 prophetic weeks began with a commandment by a Governor to build Jerusalem. Likewise Daniel’s 430 years ended with Word of God coming to Earth becoming Christ while there is a common conception that Exodus’ 430 years began with the Preincarnate Christ part of the Godhead came to Earth to Abram. The sojourning is said to have been 430 years but only part of it was in Egypt, the other Canaan’s land. Some sources break these two sojournings to be around 215 years each. Most scholars I’ve read have concluded that assigning 430 years just to Egypt’s sojourn is internally inconsistent with the rest of scripture. Caspar Verhulst (28 Nov 2021) had an interesting post stating the sojourn in Egypt was 318 years.
As he wrote:
Through belief in the exact times and timing of the Almighty, through belief in what He Himself had revealed to me and placed in my heart, including that God sent His Son when the fullness of time had come, exactly after 4,000 years, I knew that the number of years that Israel was in Egypt was 318.
I agree that it was exactly after 4,000 years. The link below has a timeline at the end showing this same exact 4,000 years.